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Please reply to this discussion who selected a different type of diabetes than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management. The types of diabetes Type 1 diabetes or juvenile diabetes is a persistent disease in which cells in the pancreas that make insulin are damaged, and the body is unable to make insulin. The body is unable to process glucose, due to the lack of insulin. In Juvenile diabetes, the elevation of blood sugar level happens from the childhood period around six years of age due to no production of insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the patient is unable to successfully use insulin to transport glucose inside cells. The body relies on unconventional energy supply in tissues, muscles, and organs. Gestational diabetes is owed to insulin-blocking hormones manufactured during pregnancy. Diabetic medication The medication used in Type 1 diabetes, is insulin. Types of insulin: Short-acting insulins include regular insulin, Humulin R, and Novolin R. Rapid-acting insulins include aspart (Novolog), lispro (Humalog), and glulisine (Apidra). Intermediate-acting insulins include NPH insulin (Novolin N, Humulin N). Long-acting insulins include degludec (Tresiba), detemir (Levemir), and glargine (Lantus, Toujeo Solostar). Insulin administration and preparation Insulin cannot be orally administered due to stomach enzymes will destroy insulin, inhibiting its purpose. It is administered by injections subcutaneously with a fine needle, syringe, or an insulin pen. The patient may also use an insulin pump, which are calibrated to distribute prescribed amounts of rapid-acting insulin involuntarily. The amount of insulin may be a static or adjustable amount, depending on the blood glucose reading on an efficient glucometer. “In hospital or home care settings, diabetic patients may become acutely unwell and rely heavily on clinician decisions predicated upon reliable glucose meters for insulin-dosing decisions” (Inman, Lyon, Lyon & Lyon, 2020). Dietary considerations The dietary considerations include the increased intake of beans, fat-free yogurt, dark green leafy vegetables, milk, citrus fruit, nuts, sweet potatoes, whole grains, berries, fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, and tomatoes. Avoid sugars, simple carbohydrates, fried and processed foods. “Several nutrition strategies and eating patterns can help support self-management among persons with diabetes” (Kloss, Funnell, Piatt & Nwankwo, 2020). The short-term and long-term impacts The short-term effects of type 1 DM are elevated thirst, recurrent urination, recent onset of nocturnal bed-wetting in children, exhaustion, excessive hunger, inadvertent loss of weight, irritability, and distorted vision. The most frequent long-term diabetes-related health complications are impairment to the large blood vessels of the legs, brain, and heart. Also, injury to the small blood vessels, producing complications in the feet, kidneys, eyes, and nerves. “Duration of diabetes, HbA1c levels, blood pressure, and baseline severity of retinopathy are known as the risk factors of onset or progression of diabetic retinopathy” (Marchand et al., 2017). The results of insulin management include decreased blood sugar at the site of multiple insulin injections, weight gain, tumors or scars, and skin rashes at the injection site or throughout the body. References Inman, M., Lyon, A. W., Lyon, O. A. S., & Lyon, M. E. (2020). Estimated Risk for Insulin Dose Error Among Hospital Patients Due to Glucose Meter Hematocrit Bias in 2020. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 144(10), 1204–1208. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0101-RA. Kloss, K. A., Funnell, M. M., Piatt, G. A., & Nwankwo, R. (2020). One size does not fit all: Nutrition strategies for people with diabetes. Nursing, 50(8), 32–39. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1097/01.nurse.0000684176.14404.ff. Marchand, L., Kawasaki-Ogita, Y., Place, J., Fayolle, C., Lauton, D., Boulet, F., Farret, A., & Renard, E. (2017). Long-Term Effects of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion on Glucose Control and Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 11(5), 924–929. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/1932296817700161.

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